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Female flowers. Copyright Barry Jago

Male flowers. CC-BY J.L. Dowe

Fruits. Copyright Barry Jago

Fruit. Copyright CSIRO

Leaves and fruit. Copyright CSIRO

Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO

10th leaf stage. Copyright CSIRO

Cotyledon stage, Epigeal germination. Copyright CSIRO

Bischofia javanica



Scientific Name

Bischofia javanica Blume

Blume, C.L. von (1827) Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie No. 7 : 1168. Type: Crescit: in sylvis montanis Provinciarum Javae occidentalis.

Common name

Java Cedar; Needle Bark; Cedar, Java; Beefwood


Large pale coloured fibres clearly visible in the dead bark flakes. Exudate emerges between layers in the blaze. Blaze darkens on exposure. Deciduous; leafless for a period in August or September.


Stalk of the middle leaflet longer than those of the lateral leaflets. Compound leaf petiole quite long, about 7-20 cm. Leaflet blades about 7-14 x 4-7 cm.


Flowers about 3 mm diam. Anthers enveloped in the tepals at the flower bud stage. Stigmas recurved, long and linear. Two ovules in each locule of the ovary.


Fruiting pedicels sparsely pubescent. Fruits globular, about 9-10 mm diam. Seeds about 5 x 3 mm. Cotyledons +/- orbicular.


Cotyledons broadly spathulate to almost orbicular, about 10-12 x 8-9 mm. At the tenth leaf stage: stipules about 5-10 mm, base broad but narrow and linear shortly above the base. Seed germination time 20 to 21 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in NEQ. Altitudinal range from near sea level to 700 m. Grows in lowland and upland rain forest, usually in sheltered situations often near creeks and gullies. Also occurs in Asia, Malesia and the Pacific islands.

Natural History & Notes

This species may have medicinal properties and it may also be poisonous. ( /herbage/A3605.htm)

This species is not known to be poisonous but can cause sever tainting of milk. Everist (1974).



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