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Malvaceae

Family Profile

Malvaceae

Family Description

A family of about 243 genera and 4225 species, world wide but largely tropical.

Genera

Abelmoschus - A genus of about six species in SE Asia, Malesia and Australia now introduced as weeds in most tropical countries; two species occur naturally in Australia. Borssum Waalkes (1966).

Abroma - A genus of two species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Fosberg (1967).

Abutilon - A genus of about 150 species, pantropic; about 30 species occur naturally in Australia. Borssum Waalkes (1966); Hnatiuk (1990).

Adansonia - A genus of 8 species in Africa, Madagascar and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963); Palmer & Pitman (1972); Baum (1995).

Argyrodendron - A genus in Malesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Australia; about ten species occur naturally in Australia. Bayer & Kubitzki (2003); Cooper & Cooper (2004); Kostermans (1959a, 1959b); Smith (1969); Wilkie et al (2006).

Azanza - A genus of 2 species, in Asia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Areces-Berazain & Ackerman (2016).

Berrya - A genus of ca. five species in Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; two species occur naturally in Australia. Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963); Halford (1993).

Bombax - A genus of about eight species in Africa, Asia Malesia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963); Croft (1981); Robyns (1963).

Brachychiton - A genus of 31 species in New Guinea and Australia; 30 species occur naturally in Australia. Guymer (1988).

Commersonia - A genus of more than 60 species species in Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; about 12 species occur naturally in Australia. Royen (1964); Guymer (2006).

Corchorus - A genus of about 70 species, pantropic; about 25 species occur naturally in Australia. Halford (1995).

Fioria - A monotypic genus in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific. Kenneally et al. (1996); Wheeler (1992).

Firmiana - A genus of about 12 species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and Fiji; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Kostermans (1957); Mildbraed (1929).

Franciscodendron - A monotypic genus endemic to Australia. Hyland and Steenis (1987).

Grewia - A genus of about 280 species in Africa, Asia, Malesia and Australia; about 12 species occur naturally in Australia. Halford (1993); Stanley & Ross (1986); White (1936).

Helicteres - A genus of about 60 species in America, Asia, Malesia and Australia; five species occur naturally in Australia. Hnatiuk (1990).

Herissantia - A genus of about five species occurring mostly in temperate and tropical America; one pantropic species occurs in Australia. Wheeler (1992).

Heritiera - A genus of ca. seven species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Kostermans (1959a, 1959b).

Hibiscus - A genus of about 300 species, pantropic; 35 species occur naturally in Australia. Borssum Waalkes (1966); Hutchinson (1967); Wheeler (1992).

Indagator - A monotypic genus endemic to Australia.

Kleinhovia - A monotypic genus in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands. Royen (1964).

Lagunaria - A genus of two species endemic to Australia; one species on Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, and the second in Queensland. Craven (2006); Green (1990).

Malvastrum - A genus of about 14 species in tropical and subtropical America and Australia; two species occur naturally in Australia and one species has become naturalised. Borssum Waalkes (1966); Hnatiuk (1990).

Melhania - A genus of about 50 species in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Malesia and Australia; two species occur naturally in Australia. Stanley & Ross (1986).

Melochia - A genus of ca. 60 species, pantropic, well developed in America; two species occur naturally in Australia. Mildbraed (1929).

Pavonia - A genus of about 200 species mainly in Africa and the New World with only a few species in Asia and Malesia; one species occurs naturally in Australia and one species has become naturalised. Borssum Waalkes (1966); Wheeler (1992).

Schoutenia - A genus of nine species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Roekmowati-Hartono (1965).

Sida - A genus of about 150 species, pantropic, particularly well developed in the Americas; about 35 species occur naturally in Australia and three to five species have become naturalised. Borssum Waalkes (1966); Hnatiuk (1990).

Sterculia - A genus of ca. 200 species, pantropic; three species occur naturally in Australia. Mildbraed (1929); Tantra (1976).

Thespesia - A genus of 16 species, pantropic; two species occur naturally in Australia. Areces-Berazain & Ackerman (2016, ), Borssum Waalkes (1966), Fosberg & Sachet (1972).

Trichospermum - A genus of 36 species, pantropic (except Africa); one species occurs naturally in Australia. Halford (1993); Kostermans (1972).

Triumfetta - A genus of ca. 150 species, pantropic; about 60 species occur in Australia. Halford (1997).

Urena - A genus of about six species, pantropic; two species occur naturally in Australia and one species has become naturalised. Hnatiuk (1990). However, Borssum Waalkes (1966) regards it as a monotypic genus.

Waltheria - A genus of ca. 50-60 species in tropical America, Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Taiwan, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; two species occur naturally in Australia. Hutchinson (1967).

References

Areces-Berazain, F. & Ackerman, J.D. (2016). Phylogenetics, delimitation and historical biogeography of the pantropical tree genus Thespesia (Malvaceae, Gossypieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181:171-198.

Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1963). In 'Flora of Java.' Vol. 1, (N.V.P. Noordhoff: Groningen.)

Baum, D.A. (1995) A systematic revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82(3): 445.

Bayer, C. and Kubitzki, K. (2003). Malvaceae. Flowering Plants Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. In Kubitzki, K, Bayer, C (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin). Vol. 5, pp. 225-311.

Bentham, G. (1863). Malvaceae. In 'Flora Australiensis' Vol. I, (Lovell Reeve & Co.: London.), pp. 184-223.

Borssum Waalkes, J. van (1966). Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea 14:1-213.

Cheek, M. & Leach, G. (1992). A new species of Corchorus (Tiliaceae) from the Northern Territory of Australia. Kew Bulletin 47:513-516.

Cooper, Wendy & Cooper, William T (2004), Fruits of the Australian tropical rainforest, Nokomis Publications, Clifton Hill, Vic.

Craven, L.A., Miller, C. & White, R.G. (2006), A new name, and notes on extra-floral nectaries, in Lagunaria (Malvaceae, Malvoideae). Blumea 51: 345-353.

Croft, J.R. (1981). Bombacaceae. In Henty, E.E. (Ed.) 'Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea.' Vol. 2, (Melbourne University Press: Melbourne.), pp. 4-18.

Fosberg, R.A. (1967). Critical notes on Pacific island plants. Micronesica 2:143-152.

Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.H. (1972). Thespesia populnea (L.) Solander ex Correa and Thespesia populneoides (Roxburgh) Kosteletsky (Malvaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany No. 7: 1-13.

Fryxell, P.A. (1974). New species of Gossypium, Decaschistia, and Macrostelia (Malvaceae) from Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 22:183-193.

Green, P.S. (1990), Notes relating to the floras of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, III. Kew Bulletin 45(2): 240-242.

Guymer, G.P. (1983). In Morley, B.D. & Toelken, H.R. (Eds) 'Flowering Plants in Australia.' (Rigby Publishers: Adelaide.).

Guymer, G.P. (1988). A taxonomic revision of Brachychiton (Sterculiaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 1:199-323.

Guymer, G. (2006). New species of Commersonia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Sterculiaceae) from Queensland. Austrobaileya 7(2): 365-372.

Halford, D.A. (1993). Notes on Tiliaceae in Australia 1. Austrobaileya 4:75-85.

Halford, D.A. (1995). Notes on Tiliaceae in Australia: 2. A revision of the simple-haired species of the genus Corchorus L. Austrobaileya 4(3): 297-320.

Halford, D.A. (1997). Notes on Tiliaceae in Australia, 3: A revision of the genus Triumfetta L. Austrobaileya 4:495-587.

Heel, W.A. van (1966). Tiliaceae. Blumea 13:322-363.

Hnatiuk, R.J. (1990). 'Census of Australian Vascular Plants.' Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11, (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.), 650 pp.

Hutchinson, J. (1967). In 'The Genera of Flowering Plants.' Vol. II, (Oxford University Press: London.), pp. 497-522.

Hyland, B.P.M. & Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1987). Franciscodendron (Sterculiaceae), a new tree genus from Queensland. Brunonia 10:211-214.

Kenneally, K.F., Edinger, D.C.& Willing, T. (1996). 'Broome and Beyond.' (Department of Conservation & Land Management: Como.), 256 pp.

Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. : 171-172.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1957). The genus Firmiana Marsili (Sterculiaceae). Reinwardtia 4:281-310.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1959a) A monograph of the genus Heritiera Aiton (Stercul.), (including Argyrodendron F. v. M. and Tarrietia Bl.). Reinwardtia 4:465-583.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1959b). A monograph of the genus Heritiera Dry. (Sterculiaceae), (including Argyrodendron F. v. M. and Tarrietia Bl.). Madjelis Ilmu Pengetabuan, Penerbitan 1:1-121.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1962). Miscellaneous botanical Notes 3 (Sterculiaceae). Reinwardtia 6:162-166.

Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (1972). A synopsis of the Old World species of Trichospermum Blume (Tiliaceae). Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 41:401-430.

Mildbraed, J. (1929). Die Sterculiaceen Papuasiens. Botanisches Jahrbucher fur Systematik 62:347-367.

Mitchell, A. (1983). Malvaceae. In Morley, B.D. & Toelken, H.R. (Eds) 'Flowering Plants in Australia.' (Rigby Publishers: Adelaide.), pp. 126-129.

Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. (1972). The Baobab Family (Bombacaceae). In 'Trees of Southern Africa.' Vol. 2, (A.A. Balkema: Cape Town.), pp. 1456-1466.

Robyns, A.G.M.W.A. (1963) Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'etat Bruxelles 33: 97.

Roekmowati-Hartono (1965). A monograph of the genus Schoutenia Korth. (Tiliaceae). Reinwardtia 7:91-138.

Royen, P. van (1964). Sterculiaceae. In 'Manual of the Forest Trees of Papua and New Guinea.' Part 3, (Department of Forests: Port Moresby.), pp. 1-39.

Smith, L.S. (1969). New species of and notes on Queensland plants - V. Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium No. 6:1-25.

Stanley, T.D. & Ross, E.M. (1986). Sterculiaceae. In 'Flora of south-eastern Queensland.' Vol. 2, (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane.), pp. 80-91.

Tantra, I.G.M. (1976). A revision of the genus Sterculia L. in Malesia (Sterculiaceae). Lembaga Penelitian Hutan, Communication 102:1-194.

Wheeler, J.R. (1992). Malvaceae. In Wheeler, J.R. (Ed.), Rye, B.L., Kock, B.L. & Wilson, A.J.G. 'Flora of the Kimberley Region.' (Department of Conservation & Land Management: Como.), pp. 200-234.

Stanley, T.D. & Ross, E.M. (1986). Tiliaceae. In 'Flora of south-eastern Queensland.' Vol. 2, (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane.), pp. 60-62.

White, C.T. (1936). Contributions to the Queensland Flora, No. 5. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 47:51-84.

Wilkie et al. (2006) Phylogenetic Relationships within the Subfamily Sterculioideae (Malvaceae/Sterculiaceae-Sterculieae) Using the Chloroplast Gene ndhF. Syst. Bot. 31(1): 160-170.