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Rubiaceae

Family Profile

Rubiaceae

Family Description

A family of about 450 genera and 6500 species, pantropic but some genera extending into temperate regions; about 36-40 genera occur naturally in Australia.

Genera

Aidia - A genus of about 46 species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; two species occur naturally in Australia. Puttock (2001); Ridsdale (1996); Tirvengadum & Sastre (1986); Wong (1984).

Antirhea - A genus of about 36 species in Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; about five species occur naturally in Australia. Chaw & Darwin (1992); Jansen (1984); White (1946).

Amaracarpus - A genus of about 30 species in Seychelles, India to Australia and Solomon Islands; two species in Australia. Forster (2010).

Atractocarpus - A genus of about 40 species in Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; seven species occur naturally in Australia. Puttock (1999).

Bobea - A genus of about two species in Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; one species occurs naturally in Australia.

Caelospermum - A genus of eight species in SE Asia, Malesia, Australia, New Caledonia and other Pacific islands; three species occur naturally in Australia. Johansson (1988a).

Coffea - A genus of about 121 species in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Malesia and Australia; one species native to Australia, two species have become naturalised in Australia. Corner (1988); Davis (2003; 2010); Forster (2004).

Cyclophyllum - A genus of about 30 species in Moluccas to Fiji and Australia; nine species occur natually in Australia.

Eumachia - A genus of 83 species in tropical regions of Africa, the Americas, SE Asia, Malesia, many Pacific islands and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Taylor (2017).

Everistia - A monotypic genus endemic to Australia. Harden et al. (2014); Reynolds & Henderson (1999).

Gardenia - A genus of about 120 species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; about 20 species occur naturally in Australia. Puttock (1988).

Gen. (AQ520454) - A new genus in the family Rubiaceae.

Geophila - A genus of 20 species, distributed throughout the tropics. Verdcourt (1976); Smith & Darwin (1988).

Guettarda - A genus of about 80 species mainly in tropical America; one pantropic species occurs in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands. Wong (1988).

Gynochthodes - A genus of about 100 species in Australasia and Madagascar; ten species occurs naturally in Australia. Cooper & Cooper (2004); Ford & Halford (2006); Harden et al. (2014), Johansson (1988b).

Hedyotis - A genus of ca. 150+ species chiefly Asian; 14 species in Australia.

Hodgkinsonia - A genus of one species endemic to Australia. Cooper & Cooper (2004); Harden et al. (2014); Mueller (1861); Taylor (2017); White (1942).

Ixora - A genus of about 400 species, pantropic; seven species occur in Australia (six native, five endemic). Adams et al. (1987); Cooper & Cooper (2004);  Fosberg (1938); Harden et al. (2014); Reynolds & Forster (2006); White (1942).

Kailarsenia - A genus of about 11 species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; three species occur naturally in Australia. Puttock (1989).

Larsenaikia - A genus of three species endemic to Australia. Cronquist (1981); Puttock (1989); Puttock (1994); Tirvengadum (1993).

Lasianthus - A genus of about 180 species in the West Indies, Africa, Asia, Malesia and Australia; two species occur naturally in Australia. Zhu et al (2012)

Mitracarpus - A genus of ca. 40 species from tropical South America, West Indies and Africa; a single species naturalised in Australia.

Morinda - A genus of about 50-80 species, pantropic; about six species occur naturally in Australia. Bailey (1905); Razafimandimbison et al (2009).

Nauclea - A genus of ten species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Ridsdale (1978b).

Neolamarckia - A genus of two species from Asia to Australia.

Neonauclea - A genus of six to ten species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Ridsdale (1989).

Oldenlandia - A genus of 100+ species that occur throughout thre tropical and subtropical regions of the world; 20 spewcies occur in Australia of which 19 are native, of which 14 are endemic and 1 is introduced.

Ophiorrhiza - A genus of about 150 species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Halford (1991).

Pavetta - A genus of about 400 species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; ten species occur naturally in Australia. Reynolds (1993).

Psychotria - A genus of about 2000 species, pantropic; about 16 species occur naturally in Australia. Cooper & Cooper (2004); Forster (2018); Harden et al (2014); Sohmer (1988).

Psydrax - A genus of about 100 species from Asia to Australia. A genus of about 100 species from Asia to Australia. Cooper & Cooper (2004); Harden et al. (2014); Reynolds & Henderson (2004).

Randia - A genus of 250-300 species, pantropic; about ten species occur naturally in Australia. White (1933, 1936).

Richardia - A genus of ca. 15 species native to tropical to warm temperate regions of the Americas, with one species native to Fiji; three species naturalised in Australia.

Spermacoce - A genus of about 250 species, mainly tropical; more than 50 species occur naturally in Australia. Stanley & Ross (1986); Harwood & Dessein (2005).

Tarenna - A genus of about 370 species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; three species occur naturally in Australia. Ali & Robbrecht (1991); Moore (1926); Reynolds & Forster (2005).

Timonius - A genus of more than 150 species in the Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; two species occur naturally in Australia. Smith (1957); Darwin (1993). Another species has recently been distinguished.

Triflorensia -A genus of 3 species endemic to Australia. Harden et al. (2014); Reynolds & Forster (2005).

Uncaria - A genus of about 35 species in tropical America, Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Malesia, Australia and the Pacific islands; two species occur naturally in Australia. Ridsdale (1978a). More recently, a further species has been distinguished. (L.W. Jessup pers. com.)

Wendlandia - A genus of about 60-70 species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; five species occur naturally in Australia. White (1939).

References

Adams, L.G., Bridson, D.M. & Robbrecht, E. (1987). The identity of Lasianthus grandiflorus Bailey (Rubiaceae). Kew Bulletin 42:209-214.

Ali, S.J. & Robbrecht, E. (1991). Remarks on the tropical Asian and Australian taxa included in Diplospora or Tricalysia (Rubiaceae - Ixoroideae - Gardenieae). Blumea 35:279-305.

Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1965). Rubiaceae. Flora of Java. 2: 274-357.

Bailey, F.M. (1905). Contributions to the flora of Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal 15:897-899.

Bridson, D.M. (1985). The lectotypification of Coffea liberica (Rubiaceae), Kew Bulletin 40: 805-807.

Chaw, S.-M. & Darwin, S.P. (1992). A Systematic Study of the Paleotropical Genus Antirhea (Rubiaceae:Guettardeae). Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 28:25-118.

Conn, B.J. (1983). Rubiaceae. Flowering Plants in Australia : 255-258.

Cooper, Wendy & Cooper, William T 2004, Fruits of the Australian tropical rainforest, Nokomis Publications, Clifton Hill, Vic.

Corner, E.J.H. (1988). Rubiaceae. Wayside Trees of Malaya' 3rd Edn. 2: 621-656.

Cronquist, A. (1981), Mimosaceae. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. 592. Columbia University Press.

Darwin, S.P. (1993). A revision of Timonius subgenus Timonius (Rubiaceae): Guettardeae). Allertonia 7: 1-39.

Davis, A.P. (2003). A new combination in Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) for Australia, and nomenclatural notes on Paracoffea, Novon 13: 182-184.

Davis, A.P. (2010) Six species of Psilanthus transferred to Coffea (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae). Phytotaxa 10: 42

Ford, A.J. & Halford, D.A. (2006). Gynochthodes oresbia Halford & A.J.Ford (Rubiaceae), a new and cryptic species from north-east Queensland. Austrobaileya 7(2): 357-364.

Forster, P.I. (2004). The tribe Coffeeae DC> (Rubiaceael Ixoroideae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 6: 904-909.

Forster, P.I. (2010). The genus Amaracarpus Blume (Rubiaceae) in mainland Australia. Austrobaileya 8(2): 156-158.

Forster, P.I. (2018) Psychotria hebecarpa Merr. & L.M.Perry (Rubiaceae), a new record for Queensland and Australia. Austrobaileya 10(2): 286-289.

Fosberg, F.R. (1938). Two Queensland Ixoras. Journal of Botany 76: 233-237.

Halford, D.A. (1991). The genus Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 3:369-375.

Harden, G.J., Nicholson, H.R.W., McDonald, W.J.F., Nicholson, N.J., Tame, T. & Williams, J. (2014). Rainforest Plants of Australia. Rockhampton to Victoria. Gwen Harden Publishing.

Harwood, R. & Dessein, S. (2005). Australian Spermacoce (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae). 1 Northern Territory. Australian Systematic Botany 18(4): 2979-365.

James, T.A. (1992). Canthium. Flora of New South Wales. 3: 498-501.

Jansen, M.E. (1984). A synopsis of Guettardella Benth. and the Old World species of Antirhea A.L. de Jussieu (Rubiaceae: Guettardeae). Blumea 29: 565-588.

Johansson, J.T. (1988a). Revision of the genus Caelospermum Blume (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae, Morindeae). Blumea 33: 265-297.

Johansson, J.T. (1988b). A new species of Gynochthodes (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae) for Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 1: 369-372.

Moore, S. (1926). Tarenna dallachiana (F. Muell. ex Benth.) Journal of Botany 64:94.

Mueller, F. (1861). Rubiaceae. Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. 2: 132.

Puttock, C.F. (1988). A revision of Gardenia Ellis (Rubiaceae) from north-eastern Queensland. Austrobaileya 2:433-449.

Puttock, C.F. (1989). Kailarsenia Tirvengadum emend. Puttock (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 3:51-62.

Puttock, C.F. (1999). Revision of Atractocarpus (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) in Australia and new combinations for some extra-australian taxa. Australian Systemtic Botany 12:271-309

Puttock, C.F. & Quinn, C.J. (1999). Generic concepts in Australian Gardenieae (Rubiaceae): a cladistic approach. Australian Systematic Botany 12:181-199.

Puttock, C.F. (2001) From Everlasting to Aidia Lour. (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae). Malayan Nature Journal 55(1,2): 171-177.

Razafimandimbison, S.G. et al (2009). Molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae:Rubioideae): How to circumscribe Morinda L. to be monophyletic?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(3): 879-886.

Razafimandimbison, S.G. et al (2009). Origin of the pantropical and nutriceutical Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae): comments on its distribution range and circumscription. J. Biogeogr. 1-10.

Reynolds, S.T. (1993). The genus Pavetta L. (Rubiaceae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 4:21-49.

Reynolds, S.T. & Forster, P.I. (2005). A taxonomic revision of Tarenna Gaertn. and Triflorensia S.T.Reynolds (Rubiaceae: Ixoroideae: Pavetteae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 7: 29-55.

Reynolds, S.T. & Forster, P.I. (2006). A taxonomic revision of Ixora L. (Rubiaceae: Ixoroideae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 7: 253-278.

Reynolds, S.T. & Henderson, R.J.F. (1999). Vanguerieae A. Rich. ex Dum. (Rubiaceae) in Australia, 1. Everistia S.T. Reynolds & R.J.F. Hend. Austrobaileya 5:353-361.

Reynolds, S.T. & Henderson, R.J.F. (2004), Vanguerieae A.Rich. ex Dum. (Rubiaceae) in Australia, 3. Psydrax Gaertn. Austrobaileya 6(4): 876-878.

Ridsdale, C.E. (1978a). A revision of Mitragyna and Uncaria (Rubiaceae). Blumea 24:43-100.

Ridsdale, C.E. (1978b). A revision of the tribe Naucleeae s.s. (Rubiaceae). Blumea 24:307-366.

Ridsdale, C.E. (1989). A revision of Neonauclea (Rubiaceae). Blumea 34:177-275.

Ridsdale, C.E. (1996). A review of Aidia s.l. (Rubiaceae) in Southeast Asia and Malesia. Blumea 41:135-179.

Smith, A.C. & Darwin, S.P. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova 4: 249-250.

Smith, L.S. (1957). New species of and notes on Queensland plants - II. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 68:43-50.

Specht, R.L. (1962). The nomenclature of some Borreria species from Northern Australia. Kew Bulletin 16(2): 239.

Sohmer, S.H. (1988). The nonclimbing species of the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 1:1-339.

Stanley, T.D. & Ross, E.M. (1986). Rubiaceae. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. 2: 320-344.

Taylor, C.M. et al (2017). Eumachia expanded, a pantropical genus distinct from Psychotria (Rubiaceae, Palicoureeae). Candollea 72(2): 289-318.

Tirvengadum, D.D. & Sastre, C. (1986). Etude taxonomique et systemes de ramification chez Aidia et genres asiatiques affins, et chez Brachytome (Rubiaceae). Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 4e Ser., 8, Sect. B, Adansonia 3: 257-296.

Tirvengadum, D.D. (1993), Larsenaikia, a new genus of the Rubiaceae from Australia. Nordic Journal of Botany 13: 181.

Verdcourt, B. 1976. Rubiaceae (part 1). Fl. Trop. E. Africa (16): 1-141.

White, C.T. (1933). Ligneous plants collected for the Arnold Arboretum in North Queensland by S.F. Kajewski in 1929. Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 4: 1-113.

White, C.T. (1936). Contributions to the Queensland Flora, No. 5. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 47:51-84.

White, C.T. (1939). Contributions to the Queensland Flora, No. 6. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 50:66-87.

White, C.T. (1942). Contributions to the Queensland Flora, No. 7. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 53: 201-228.

White, C.T. (1946). The Australian species of Antirhea, and a new name for a Cuban species. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 27:121-122.

Wong, K.-M. (1984). The genera of Peninsular Malaysian Rubiaceae formerly confused with Randia. Malayan Nature Journal 38:1-57.

Wong, K.-M. (1988). The Antirheoideae (Rubiaceae) of the Malay Peninsula. Kew Bulletin 43: 491-518.

Zhu, H., Roos, M.C. & Ridsdale, C.E. (2012) A taxonomic revision of Malesian species of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae). Blumea 57(1): 1-102.